Ritual and Symbolic Thought Has Just Moved Back 3 Million Years: Meet Homo naledi

September 11th, 2015  -  Mike Williams

Homo nadeli

It is not often that an archaeological discovery can completely change what we know (or think we know) about prehistoric belief. But it has happened. The announcement yesterday of the discovery of Homo naledi, a completely new species of human, changes everything. Let me explain how.

The latest addition to our direct family tree, Homo naledi, was actually found by two cavers in 2013, in a cave system known as Rising Star, located within South Africa’s famous Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Recognising the importance of the discovery, a team of sixty scientists and dozens of volunteer cavers started a 21-day exploration and dig during November. Hoping to recover some bones, maybe a skull, maybe even a skeleton, in just three days they had amassed so many bones that research leader Lee Berger described it as “something different and extraordinary”.

In all, the team recovered 15 skeletons, with many more still lying in the cave. In fact, so many bones have been recovered (1,500 to date) that almost every skeletal element of the body is represented multiple times throughout different age groups: from infants to teens, to young adults and the elderly. Excavators believe the individuals may have been part of an extended family.

Homo naledi was very tall for its time (around 5 foot), very slender (around 100lbs) but with well-muscled joints. It also had a curiously tiny head with a correspondingly small brain, the smallest of all Homo and even Australopithecine species. It is very possible (even though no dates are yet available, excavators have guessed at around 2-3 million years-old) that Homo naledi is the base of our species, the link between the last Australopithecine in our evolution and Homo habilis, hitherto the earliest homo species.

This is all incredible, ground-breaking stuff that will, quite literally, rewrite the history books (including mine) but, for me, this is not the most exciting aspect of the discovery. The location of the bones, at the back of a very narrow cave (as narrow as 17.5 centimetres in places and so remote no other animal lived there), begs the question: how did they get there? The answer is revolutionary.

The excavators quickly ruled out possibilities such as mass death, transport by water, predation, and other natural, or at least rational, reasons. This left them with the irrational. It slowly dawned upon the excavators that they were witnessing deliberate activity; Homo naledi deliberately disposed of their dead at the end of a very long, dark, and dangerous tunnel. This is revelatory as we are only just accepting that, perhaps, maybe, Neanderthals did something similar, but, apart from that, the trait is believed unique to anatomically-modern humans (Homo sapiens).

The conclusion has to be that ritual activity goes way beyond our modern incarnation, right back to when the genus Homo first emerged. But Homo naledi had a very small brain. How could they have thought symbolically? Current wisdom would suggest they cannot. “What does that mean for us?” ponders Berger. “Did we inherit it, has it always been there in our lineage, or did they invent it?”

I think the answer may lie in trance. We know that people experiencing trance often describe the appearance of a tunnel before them (caused since the active neurons in the brain at this stage of trance have a spiralling tendency). Although it is hard to prove, this phenomenon is likely for all higher-order mammals. Modern shamans describe going down the tunnel and stepping out the other side into an otherworld, where they see spirits or deceased ancestors. Homo naledi may have experienced similar but what this species also seems to have done is extrapolate thoughts about this sensation and replicate them in this world. If dead spirits lay at the end of a long tunnel, then it must have seemed logical to put the remains of the dead in similar locations. But this requires symbolic thought – something only we are supposed to have.

The work on the new discoveries will take years longer and new surprises will almost certainly appear. But it no longer seems outlandish to suggest that what set Homo apart (not “us” but our entire species lineage) from earlier species was its ability to have symbolic thought and use inner experiences (such as trance) to determine outer actions. (That’s until we find a species of Australopithecine that does similar!)

Spirituality (as it relates to the treatment of the dead and a concept of an afterlife) may have started with Homo naledi, our earliest direct ancestor to bear the prefix Homo. It’s a staggering thought. It opens up a completely new way of seeing prehistory and the actions of our earlier relatives. Were hand axes art? Did fire have a symbolic importance? Were cults shared culturally in or between groups? These are questions we thought we would never ask.

In my field of prehistoric belief, this is the most exciting discovery in my lifetime. I only hope my mind is big enough to take it all in!


The academic reports on the discoveries split into two. Click here for an analysis of the remains, and here for the context of their discovery.


Shamanic Training Organisations

August 29th, 2015  -  Mike Williams

Shamanic Training

I am often asked about shamanic training courses in the UK that are open to complete beginners and also those which will suit more advanced practitioners. The following is a list of organisations I have either trained with, know the people involved, or have heard good things about (although you must make up your own mind before committing). I have provided the name of the organisation, a brief introduction taken from their website, and an internet address for more information.

I have also included a few more resources at the end of the list if nothing here quite matches what you are after. I hope this helps.

Danu Forest

On this Natural Magic course (an online correspondence course of thirteen moons ) you will learn to work primarily with the spirit presences of your own landscape, using hedge-witchcraft and Celtic shamanistic techniques to celebrate and harmonise with the seasons, work with spirit allies and ceremony in order to weave natural magic in balance and in relationship with the energies of the Earth.

Website: http://www.danuforest.co.uk/

Eagle’s Wing

The work of Eagle’s Wing is to help people connect their inner and outer worlds, to heal old wounds within, be able to bring dreams from the world of spirit into matter and thus enjoy a creative and fruitful life.

Using workshops and training for mixed groups, women only workshops or via individual sessions Eagle’s Wing offers life enhancing, transformative work. Shamanic healing includes: shamanic journeying, trance-dance, soul retrieval, remote viewing, sweat lodges, circle of community and much more.

Based in South East England but holding classes throughout the UK, Eagle’s Wing has shamanic journey to suit you.

Website: http://eagleswing.co.uk/

Elen Sentier: British Native Shamanism

Training works through the old stages of Apprentice to Journeyman and finally to Master and is based around the three main tenets of spiritual practice

The study work includes reading and written assignments. The experience work includes journeying, ritual, ceremony, craft, storytelling. The service work is about work you do for others, people, animals, plants, the planet. You will need to write all of these up and send them to us. I will discuss these with you, help you find answers to your questions and support you through your apprenticeship and journeyman-ship.

You will participate in a final workshop. This takes place over 14 days and is very experiential. You put into practice what you have learned over the three years, walking between the worlds, showing me what you know.

Website: https://elensentier.wordpress.com/

The Foundation for Shamanic Studies

Core shamanism consists of the universal, near-universal, and common features of shamanism, together with journeys to other worlds, a distinguishing feature of shamanism. As originated, researched, and developed by Michael Harner, the principles of core shamanism are not bound to any specific cultural group or perspective. Since the West overwhelmingly lost its shamanic knowledge centuries ago due to religious oppression, the Foundation’s programs in core shamanism are particularly intended for Westerners to reacquire access to their rightful spiritual heritage through quality workshops and training courses. Training in core shamanism includes teaching students to alter their consciousness through classic shamanic non-drug techniques such as sonic driving, especially in the form of repetitive drumming, so that they can discover their own hidden spiritual resources, transform their lives, and learn how to help others. Core shamanism does not focus on ceremonies, such as those of Native American medicine men and women, persons who do both shamanism and ceremonial work.

Join the thousands each year who take the Foundation’s rigorous training in core shamanism. The training programs have been carefully designed and thoroughly tested to provide an authentic shamanic experience and practical results.

Website (Europe): http://www.shamanicstudies.net/

The Four Gates Foundation (Ross Heaven)

Our workshops take place residentially in Spain but we are also happy to come to you anywhere in the world if you would like to assemble a group.

Website: http://www.thefourgates.org/

Hallowquest (Caitlín & John Matthews)

Together we like to explore the myths of Britain and Ireland, uncover the Celtic and Arthurian mysteries, explore the shamanic possibilities and create rituals that honour the ancestral ways and tell the ancient stories that our descendants will remember.

We offer a wide range of training in the UK and round the World.

Website: http://www.hallowquest.org.uk/index.html

Northern Drum Shamanic Centre

Northern Drum Shamanic Centre is a UK-based educational organisation offering a renewed perspective on traditional shamanic and medicine teachings, and a safe grounding from which to learn them. We provide unique opportunities for growth on your journey in life, with our breadth of shamanic training courses and workshops from introductory to advanced levels. Whether you are new to shamanism, or already experienced but seeking to deepen your knowledge and skills, Northern Drum welcomes you.

Whether you’re a beginner in the study and practice of Shamanism, or have experience in this field, Northern Drum’s comprehensive Three Year Shamanic Training works to deepen your knowledge and give you practical experience with the shamanic techniques taught. Our focus is to provide a strong, solid and safe understanding and practise of shamanism, whether you aim to become proficient in the art of shamanic healing, or to use the knowledge and skills to improve the quality of your own life. We will cover in depth an empowering range of teachings including contacting your spirit ancestors, establishing a strong centre, and life purpose.

Website: http://northerndrum.com/

The Sacred Trust

The Sacred Trust is a UK-based not-for-profit educational organisation offering shamanic trainings and workshops on shamanism from weekends to three-year shamanic practitioner trainings.

The Sacred Trust offers an ongoing curriculum of courses and trainings in cross-cultural and classical shamanism. These include two-week intensives, a Three Year Professional Shamanic Practitioners Training, shamanic darkness retreats, workshops in shamanic polarity, trainings from The Path of Pollen and other teaching events of note.

Website: http://sacredtrust.org/

Shamanic Teachers (Trained by Sandra Ingerman)

Some of you will use the practice of shamanism only for your own personal healing, growth and evolution. After extensive practice, some of you will be guided to pursue shamanic work for helping others in your community and in your work to help the planet.

I feel the times we live in call for our communities to be seeded with well-trained shamanic teachers. It is time for us to bring the practice of shamanism back into our communities and make the work available to those who wish to learn more about how this ancient and universal spiritual practice can be bridged and integrated into our lives.

This website is designed to help you find a shamanic teacher in your area who can teach you basic and advanced shamanic skills. Since 2004 I have been teaching Two-Year Teacher Trainings in Shamanic Journeying, Healing, and the Medicine for the Earth work.  This website lists a wealth of teachers who have been trained to teach shamanic healing methods to heal individuals and the environment.

Website: http://www.shamanicteachers.com/

Therapeutic Shamanism

Workshops and training in eco-psychotherapy, body-centred psychotherapy, shamanic healing and nature-based spirituality. Courses include: shamanic journeying, core shamanism, soul retrieval, power animals, shamanic counselling, the medicine wheel, mending the past, healing the future, shamanic extraction, plant spirit medicine, shamanic psychotherapy and lots more. Train to be a shamanic practitioner or shamanic therapist. Courses in North Wales, and through the UK.

Website: http://www.therapeutic-shamanism.co.uk/

Warrior in the Heart Foundation

Howard and Elsa Malpas are experienced Shamanic practitioners with over thirty years of experience in Shamanism and teaching the sacred art.

The Warrior in the Heart Shamanic Practitioner Course is run in Glastonbury in association with the Isle of Avalon Foundation. In order to join the Shamanic Practitioner course it is necessary to have taken part in one of our Shamanic Journey weekends.

We now have several advanced courses for those who have undertaken our Shamanic Journey weekend or those with some other shamanic experience.

Website: http://warriorintheheart.com/index.php

Wilderness Spirit: Shamanism in Wales

There are many ways to learn, heal, and explore Shamanism for yourself. Here at Wilderness Spirit you can find healing, regular groups and short workshops, vision quests, practitioner training, beautiful craftwork and drums, ceremonies, and all sorts of adventures created with learning and growth in mind…

Workshops are held at various locations, mostly within the Brecon Beacons National Park, a place of powerful Elemental energies, stunning landscapes and many species of wildlife, including the once endangered Red Kite. The area offers a great variety of attractions for those who wish to stay longer and explore. Workshops take place both indoors and, weather permitting, in a 16ft tipi, as well as outdoors in nature with the rivers and the mountains. Very simple vegetarian lunches are provided during workshops, there are plenty of good B&B’s and Youth Hostels within easy reach, and several local pubs serving good evening meals.

Website: http://www.shamanism-wales.co.uk/

Other Resources

Shaman Portal

The online resource for all things shamanic, including training courses.

Website: http://www.shamanportal.org/

The UK Shamanism Gathering

Each year the gathering acts as a meeting place for those interested in shamanism as a living path of spiritual wisdom.. It is open to anyone – with any level of shamanic experience – and is held within a friendly sacred circle

We invite you to come and join the circle!

Website: http://www.shamanconference.co.uk/

The Society for Shamanic Practitioners

USA based list of training offered.

Website: http://www.shamansociety.org/training.html

Sacred Hoop Magazine

A leading international magazine about shamanism, sacred wisdom and earth spirituality. Sacred Hoop Magazine was established in 1993, and is published quarterly, in both digital and paper formats. It contains many advertisements from shamanic training organisations and individuals.

Website: http://www.sacredhoop.org/

Indie Shaman Magazine

The UK’s only magazine on shamanism available directly in print from an independent publisher, Indie Shaman is a quarterly glossy high quality magazine printed on FSC paper with 48 pages packed full of informative illustrated articles. Also available in pdf and flipbook format. It contains many advertisements from shamanic training organisations and individuals.

Website: https://indieshaman.co.uk/


August 13th, 2015  -  Mike Williams

Horse Blessing

Today is the Feast Day of St Hippolytus, a third century theologian who, as his name may suggest, is the Patron Saint of Horses. What has that got to do with shamanism I hear you ask? Well, there are hints that he founded a healing cult for horses that survived in Britain into medieval times.

St Hippolytus of Rome (170–235) is considered the most important third century theologian in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born. What is left of the writings about his life record a stern figure, concerned with orthodoxy.  Whilst he welcomed Pagan converts, he insisted their penance must be strict.

Under the persecution of Emperor Maximinus Thrax, Hippolytus was exiled in 235 to Sardinia, where he died. On August 13th (his Feast Day) he was interred in Rome and, by about 255, Hippolytus was considered a martyr and, later, saint.

According to Prudentius, writing in the 5th century in his “Passion of St Hippolytus”, the saint was dragged to death by wild horses, earning his martyrdom.

Whilst this is possible, it is also likely that Prudentius was mixing up this Hippolytus with the legendary Hippolytus, who appears in Euripides’ play of the same name. According to Euripides, Hippolytus (Greek: Ἱππόλυτος meaning “unleasher of horses”) was a son of Theseus and Hippolyte. He was killed after rejecting the advances of Phaedra, his stepmother, the second wife of Theseus. Spurned, Phaedra deceived Theseus saying that his son had raped her. Theseus, furious, used one of the three wishes given to him by Poseidon to curse Hippolytus. Poseidon sent a sea-monster to terrorize Hippolytus’s horses, who dragged their rider to his death.

I wonder if Prudentius may have got his Hippolytus confused with Euripides’. If so, then how did St Hippolytus become the patron saint of horses if not through his death?

Another (from what I can tell, unreferenced) story is that Hippolytus was no Roman saint but a man known to be skilled in taming colts and in treating sick horses. This might be dismissed out of hand but for a little known cult of St Hippolytus in a Hertfordshire village.

It all starts, appropriately, with another execution. According to the local church records, the building was funded by grants supplied by Judith de Lens, the niece of William the Conqueror. De Lens gave evidence against her husband, a Saxon Earl, which led to his execution. The funding of the church was an attempt to make amends for this act. Why de Lens dedicated the church to St Hippolytus is unknown – perhaps he was a saint she was fond of in Normandy. He was clearly revered locally too as the village that grew around the church is still called St Ippolyts today.

For the Normans (and the Anglo-Saxons) horses were the living pulse of their existences. Horses were everything to these people as we can tell by the fine images of horses in jewellery and weapons. So a legend grew that a sick horse brought to the shrine to St Hippolytus inside St Ippolyts’ church, would be healed. This tradition lasted throughout the medieval period.

So was St Hippolytus a Christian martyr, pulled apart by wild horses like his Classical namesake, or was he actually a healer specialising in horses, an original horse-whisperer? If he was the latter, then the activities in St Ippolyts make more sense; and it is likely that he became a Patron Saint of horses not because of his brutal death and dismemberment at their hooves, but because he cared for these creatures both in life, and in death.

As for the tradition today,  at St Ippolyts’ church the 2015 Horse Blessing service was held on Sunday, 9th August. 16 horses were present to be blessed by the vicar, Revd Ann, who also led prayers dedicated to horses and the part they play in the world. The collection went to the Riding for the Disabled Charity. I think St Hippolytus would have looked very kindly upon his 21st century brethren.

The image is from St Ippolyts’ Church website.


Prehistoric Shamanic Healing Today

July 17th, 2015  -  Mike Williams


Boring into a person’s skull, cutting a ring of bone loose, and then snapping it upwards to remove it completely is a difficult technique to get right, especially when it is undertaken with stone tools and without modern anaesthetic. Yet this is precisely the procedure that Stone Age surgeons performed hundreds of times. The most remarkable part, is that some of their patients even survived the treatment and recovered. The technique is trepanation, the removal of small discs of skull, which seems to feature in all periods of our prehistoric past. It was not a primitive form of brain surgery, but let something out that was trapped in the body of the patient: bad spirits. We cannot know what conditions led to the radical surgery but episodes of epilepsy, mental illness, or even high fever may have been interpreted as the person having been invaded by a bad spirit and needing trepanation to remove it.

Today, modern shamanic practitioners still extract harmful spirits from their patients, although they do not make a hole in the skull in order to do it. Moreover, the rationale behind spirit intrusion and its necessary extraction has not changed across the millennia. To find out what these are, we need to travel to 35,000 years ago, at a time when the first people of Europe painted the caves of France and Spain with breathtaking images of their world.

The inaccessibility of the caves, and the need to pass along lengthy tunnels to reach the art, suggests that a visit to them was not undertaken lightly. It was probably an incredibly sacred activity and may have had echoes of the shamanic journey to the otherworld. When shamans enter trance, the prerequisite of any journey, they see shapes and these rapidly coalesce into a tunnel. By passing along the tunnel, the shaman eventually sees light at its end and can then step out into the realm of the otherworld. Ancient people clearly noticed the similarity between the journey to the otherworld and the route into their caves since they painted shapes on the walls of the caves that match those seen when first entering trance.

Along with these abstract shapes, people also painted images of the otherworld: visions of what they saw in trance. Animals abound in huge herds; bulls, horses, and deer all circle the walls, kicking up their feet in a whirling maelstrom of flesh and fur.

Most of the animals people painted were prey species: animals the people would have relied upon to survive. In among the herds, however, or stalking a lone straggler, were other beasts: lions, leopards, even a cave bear. These were predators and, despite being competition for prey, these were animals that humans would want to learn from, emulate, and even befriend. Perhaps this was why some carried small models of these killers, intricately formed from mammoth ivory. They were a touchstone of power to call upon when needed. Moreover, incised upon the sides of these models were the same shapes that decorated the caves walls; those that people see when entering trance. For the people that carried them, these were spirit animals.

The same was likely true for the animals painted on the cave walls and the way that certain creatures seem to flow in and out of the rock, or emerge from a crack in the wall, seems to underline the point. Some painters clearly wanted more, to reach behind the veil of the rock itself. They placed their hands against the wall and blew paint around and over them. It was a way of reaching out into other realms. Others scraped a little of the clay wall loose, as if they wanted to know what lay behind its shroud. To these people, the otherworld and its spirits were real.

If a model made from ivory, and a painted image on a wall could contain a spirit, then it is clear that so could anything else. This is animism, the belief that everything is alive and has a spirit that exists in the otherworld. The same is also true for illness.

When we catch something, the spirit of the illness passes into our body and lodges there, causing the symptoms of the disease. In a way, it is a little like a virus, which we cannot see and only know that it is there through the effects that we suffer. Rather than referring to a virus, however, a shaman would say a spirit has invaded us and, before we can heal, it needs to be extracted. This is when healers in the past would reach for their stone tools and their patients undoubtedly went very pale.

Today, a shaman would enter trance and search for the invading spirit. Being in trance means that the spirit becomes visible, since the shaman crosses the boundary between this reality and the other and develops a form of x-ray vision. This is why much shamanic art often shows the insides of things, such as animals’ bones. When the shaman locates the intrusive spirit, he or she will gather it up, maybe by using a fan of feathers or maybe by sucking it into the mouth, and will then take it to a place where it is returned harmlessly to nature. Rather than viewing the spirit as bad or evil, the shaman considers it merely as energy that is in the wrong place. By returning it to nature, it is reabsorbed into the great web of life.

In the Iron Age, people made little models of body parts and moved the invading spirit into their forms before throwing them into water. The source of the Seine in France is full of such models as it was an important healing sanctuary. Even today, many shamanic healers return extracted spirits to water

In order to conduct such healing, the shaman needs to be full of power. Otherwise, the spirit of the illness could just move straight from patient to healer and the shaman would go ill with the same symptoms. One way shamans fill themselves with power is to call upon the spirit of their helper animal. This may be why people in the Ice Age carried models of their animals with them: portable touchstones of power. Taking on such power can feel a little like turning into the animal itself, something shamans call shapeshifting and it is revealing that some of the Ice Age models are half-animal and half-human. Perhaps these are the shamans themselves, in the midst of shapeshifting into animal form.

When shamans enter trance and journey to the otherworld, a part of them, their soul or essence, leaves this reality to travel to the other. This is far more natural than it sounds as we all experience something similar when we dream at night. Only a part of the soul ever leaves, however, since if it all departed, then the shaman would be dead.

There are other times when part of a person’s soul might leave them, such as during terrible trauma, when people put a part of themselves in a safe place in order that they have protection against whatever assails them, either physically or mentally. It is the body’s way of ensuring that, however bad something gets, there is always a piece remaining safe and unharmed. Usually, once the trauma passes, the soul part returns. A problem only arises if it does not. People suffering from such soul loss might describe themselves as “not all here” or as if a part of them is missing and they are right. Without their missing soul part, they are not complete. Their energy depletes, their health suffers, and they enter a downward spiral that only stops once they seek healing and regain their soul part. This is why soul retrieval – finding lost souls as they wander adrift in the otherworlds, bringing them back, and restoring them to patients – is one of the most important of all shamanic practices.

Soul parts always head for the otherworld when they leave their human host and so this is the place that a shaman will go to look for them. Immediately after entering the trance state that is necessary to travel to the otherworld, the shaman will call his or her power animal, as power animals make excellent trackers. When the soul part is located, often resembling the patient at the age that they lost it, the shaman can gather it up, sometimes placing it into a special container, and bring it back to this world. The soul part can then be blown into the patient’s heart and restored to them.

In prehistory, shamans seem to have used hollow bones to store missing soul parts as they moved between the worlds. Such bones frequently accompanied people to the grave, as if they were an important part of an individual’s belongings that they could not do without. In the Iron Age, there are even images of soul retrieval, such as that engraved onto the Gundestrup cauldron, from Denmark. Here, a shaman draws the soul back into his patients before sending them on their way.

Herbs and other medicines probably supplemented any other form of healing. Ötzi the Iceman, for example, who froze into the snow of the Alps with his travelling pack complete, carried various herbs to treat his ailments. For a shaman, however, since everything is alive and has its own spirit, an herb is more than just a plant and is something that he or she can befriended and use as an ally in the healing process. It is not just the herb that shamans dispense to their patients but also its healing spirit.

Despite having ancient roots, shamanism works in harmony with modern medicine and procedures since it has a very different understanding of the nature of illness. As well as treating the symptom, for instance, by taking painkillers or antidepressants, shamanism allows treatment of the cause of the dis-ease, whether it is an invading spirit or soul loss. The two approaches work hand-in-hand. Perhaps this is why Mercy Medical Centre in Merced, California has recently invited shamans to work alongside modern doctors, caring for the soul as the surgeon cares for the body. It is a beautiful partnership of the old and new.

Ships on Stone: Walking Through Images of Ancient Shamanism

May 22nd, 2015  -  Mike Williams


My visit to the land of the midnight sun was during early autumn, so that night was slowly creeping back into ascendancy over day. I was far north of the Arctic Circle at Alta in Norway, one of the finest rock-carving sites in the world. The images there date from all periods of prehistory but I went to see those carved during the Bronze Age, when the ancient precursors of the indigenous Sámi people left signs of their shamanic beliefs etched into the rock.

As I walked down to the shoreline rocks, where most images occur, I was struck at how appropriate it is that the designs occur on the boundary between land and sea. For many shamanic people, water provides the gateway to another reality – the otherworld. To cross to the otherworld, shamans first put themselves in trance but Bronze Age people probably recognised the rocks on the shore at Alta as a location where the two realities came together; even a place where transition between them was possible. The rapid lowering of sea levels in this region during the Bronze Age – and the resulting exposure of much new ground – probably heightened the belief that the shore provided access to different realms.


At first, the images I saw at Alta were of domestic scenes: hunting elk, corralling reindeer, and catching fish. A predatory bear also put in the odd appearance and one panel showed a hunt at its lair. In among these images, however, were others that seemed to denote magical practices and I was quickly reminded that the people who created the carvings did not separate ritual and domestic life as we do. Hunting a bear was both sacred and profane. This became particularly pertinent when I viewed the many images of boats. People were using some in ordinary fishing expeditions, or as platforms for hunting, whereas others seemed to have a very different role altogether. Just as the boatman Charon ferried the dead to the afterlife in Greek myth, so shamans utilise spirit boats to reach the otherworld. Of the images of boats on the rocks at Alta, the most curious were those depicted upside-down.


Shamans often report that the otherworld is a mirror image of this world, so that objects that are upside-down in this world are the right way up in the otherworld. The upside-down boats at Alta may have been travelling between the worlds.

At other sites in Scandinavia, people not only carved upside-down boats but also took advantage of the natural surface of the rock to make it appear as if the boats passed through its membrane and into a world on the other side. People also positioned the boat images so that the rising and setting sun fleetingly illuminated particular vessels before plunging them back into gloom. It seems that people deliberately emphasised the transient, ephemeral quality of the boats, possibly mirroring their journey into the otherworld.


Back at Alta, picking my way even closer to the shore, I noticed that a number of boats contained figures that were dancing or drumming. I knew that Sámi shamans listened to the repetitive beat of the drum to enter trance (and so journey to the otherworld) but the dancing required a different explanation. Further south, in Denmark, bronze razors carry designs etched onto their surfaces showing large mushrooms carried in boats. A close look at these images reveals that the mushrooms are fly agaric, the archetypal red-and-white toadstools that grow in the birch woods of the region. The mushrooms provoke trance states when eaten and a person can heighten this if they are prepared to drink their urine afterwards. Historical studies show that shamans in the region readily did this in order to fuel their journeys to the otherworld. Interestingly, one of the symptoms of ingesting fly agaric is excessive movement. Perhaps this explains why people in the boats at Alta appeared to be dancing; they were allowing the drug they had taken to course through their bodies.

Like ancient Greeks, the people who engraved the rocks believed that boats not only transported shamans to the otherworld but also the dead to the afterlife. During earlier periods, people buried their dead in coffins fashioned from hollowed out oak trees. Since they made boats in exactly the same way, people effectively buried their dead in boats; a fitting symbol given their beliefs. Even after coffins fell out of use, people surrounded graves with stones mimicking the keel of a boat. Some burial cairns even have images of boats beneath or around them and many of these boats contain no crew, as if the vessel were for the sole (and soul) use of the occupant.

Many burial cairns overlook the sea, as if people expected the dead to rise from their graves and head towards the water in their journey to the afterlife. In fact, sometimes people gave them a helpful steer by engraving footprints between cairn and sea that pointed in the right direction. These often cross a line of boat carvings, as if the wandering soul picked up its transport on its way to the shore.

Some of the figures in the boats I saw at Alta had drums and these individuals may have been shamans. I thought of the classic image of Siberian shamans, and, indeed, of the Sámi shamans, beating their drums and journeying to the otherworld. Intriguingly, Sámi shamans sometimes refer to their drums as boats, vessels that carry them to other realms; an echo, perhaps, of the Bronze Age beliefs that are evident on the rocks.


Sámi drums contain images on the surface of their skins, painted in red alder sap, which represent a map of the entire cosmos, including this world and the otherworld. The carvings on the rocks may have had a similar function. At Alta, I found one design that showed a boat full of people dancing and drumming. Above them was an individual with arms outstretched, a shaman perhaps, on his or her way to the otherworld. The design was at the base of a rock that sloped upwards, with footprints helpfully pointing out the upward direction of travel. I followed after them, taking care not to step onto the rock, and before long I passed the flying shaman again, confirming that this was definitely the route I should take. When I reached the top of the incline, I was rewarded with a spectacular view of the fjord, all the way beyond the headland and out to the shimmering sea. Was this the route to the otherworld that the ancient shamans followed?

The gathering gloom eventually fell on my time at Alta and I reluctantly had to leave the images and head away from the shore. As I did so, I noticed the ball of the sun descend across the sea, heading towards the realm of the otherworld. I thought of the Bronze Age shamans watching a similar scene, deep in trance from eating hallucinogenic mushrooms, and waiting to board the boat that would ferry them into that alternative existence. In this place of age-old ritual and magic, it even felt like I might join them, peeling back the veil of millennia to enter their world: the realm of the ancient shamans.


City of the Monkey God

March 6th, 2015  -  Mike Williams

City of the Monkey God

Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés was never one to ignore the possibility of treasure; his lust for gold had already seen the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan fall to his mercenary army. So when he heard tales of a region with a city of extreme wealth in Honduras, his interest was piqued. Fortunately for the occupants, and for us, he never found it, but the myth of the legendary city of La Ciudad Blanca (the White City) was born. Following the conquest of the Inca, people forgot about La Ciudad Blanca until, in 1927, aviator Charles Lindbergh reported seeing a “white city” while flying over eastern Honduras.

In 1939, adventurer Theodore Morde claimed to have found a “City of the Monkey God” in Honduras, which, because of its location, many reasoned to be la Ciudad Blanca. He told tales that would have made even Cortés blush, about there once being temple with a large staircase leading to a statue of a Monkey God. According to what Morde was told by local people, the temple had a long, staired approach, lined with stone effigies of monkeys. The heart of the Temple was a high stone dais on which was the statue of the Monkey God himself. Before it was a place of sacrifice. The steps to the dais were said to have been flanked by immense balustrades. At the beginning of one was the colossal image of a frog; at the beginning of the other a crocodile. Morde also related folk tradition about a monkey who had stolen three women with whom it bred, resulting in half-monkey half-human children. Morde claimed that the native name for monkey is Urus, which translates literally into ‘sons of the hairy men.’ Their fathers, or fore-fathers, are the Ulaks, half-man and half-spirit, who lived on the ground, walked upright, and had the appearance of great hairy ape-men.

Interest in La Ciudad Blanca grew in latter part of the twentieth century as numerous explorers searched for it. News of any archaeological work in the area was chronicled in popular media, which always liked a “lost city” story. Then, at last, the ruins were identified in May 2012, during an aerial survey of a remote valley in La Mosquitia, a vast region of swamps, rivers, and mountains containing some of the last scientifically unexplored places on earth. However, an archaeological discovery isn’t confirmed until it has been seen on the ground. So, a team of American and Honduran archaeologists, a lidar engineer, an anthropologist, an ethnobotanist, National Geographic documentary filmmakers, and support personnel set off to establish the truth. According to a news announcement by National Geographic this week, the team found and surveyed the city. La Ciudad Blanca, the White City, the City of the Monkey God, has now been officially found.

Although no excavation took place (in line with scientific protocol) the archaeologists found evidence of, so-called, were-jaguar carvings. These are half-human, half-animal (supposedly a jaguar) carvings, which probably represent a transformed shaman, shapeshifting into animal form. The first part of the name, were-, comes from the Old English meaning man (human) and also gives rise to the more familiar were-wolf. Were-jaguars first emerged in the Olmec period and appear to be almost universal throughout all cultures that came after.

At La Venta, an archaeological site of the Olmec located in the present-day Mexican state of Tabasco, an altar contained a carved image of two lively were-jaguar babies being carried out from a niche or cave—places often associated with the emergence of human beings— and may relate to the mythic hero twins of Olmec mythology and perhaps the forerunners of the Mayan Hero Twins.

There is no actual consensus that these transformed spirits were jaguars, however, and, even if they were, since La Ciudad Blanca developed almost two thousand years after La Venta, it is possible that the mythology had changed. Going back to the stories of Morde, could the “were-jaguars” at La Ciudad Blanca actually be “were-monkeys”, making sense of what local people remembered about the site. Like the “were-jaguar” babies at La Venta, could the story of were-monkeys born to a woman and a male monkey, relate to the existing tradition of the mythical twins, as revealed on the carving at La Venta?

Perhaps La Ciudad Blanca really was a City of the Monkey God. It is believed that the first “were-jaguar” statues of the Olmec were worshiped as gods, could the same be true of the “were-monkeys” at La Ciudad Blanca, giving credence to Mordes story about a monkey temple with a Monkey God at its heart?

It is anticipated that further excavation will reveal more and I hope archaeologists will not easily dismiss indigenous beliefs, which tell of a great city devoted to the cult of the “were-monkey”. Morde and his local informants may just have been right.


The illustration is by Virgil Finlay for The American Weekly representing the Temple in Morde’s “Lost City of the Monkey God.

The original National Geographic press release can be found here.

St Dewi of Wales: Once and Future Saint

February 27th, 2015  -  Mike Williams

Dewi Sant

This Sunday, it’s St David’s (Dewi) Day in Wales – Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant in Welsh. He is unusual in the United Kingdom for being the only saint born in the nation he represents, although the date of his birth can only be estimated at between 462 and 512 AD.

Dewi was born to Sant, was the son of Ceredig, King of Ceredigion, and Non, later St Non, the daughter of a chieftain of Menevia (now the cathedral town of St David’s). Non gave birth on a cliff top near Capel Non (a later chapel built for her) on the south-west coast of Wales. A fair storm whipped up from the sea as Dewi made his way into this world. The proximity of a Holy Well, possibly a pre-Christian site of veneration, may explain why Non chose this unlikely place to give birth. It is curious that milestones during Dewi’s life were marked by the appearance of springs of water.

Dewi was destined for the church from an early age and spent his formative years in the monastery of Hen Fynyw under the tutorage of St. Paulinus, a saint honoured as one of the founders of Brittany across the Channel. Paulinus was old when he took on Dewi and, as his sight faded into blindness, Dewi miraculously restored his vision. It was the first of many miracles performed by the saint.

Perhaps the most famous is the time Dewi was preaching at the Synod of Brefi. As more and more people crowded around him to hear his words, the ground on which he stood rose to form a hill. Now everyone could see Dewi clearly. A white dove landed on his shoulder, and it became his symbol, always shown in later illustrations. Although one of the most esteemed historians of Wales, the late Dr John Davies, remarks that creating a hill in Wales must rank with the most superfluous of miracles, Dewi was acclaimed for it and people called upon him to be made archbishop. This meant that St David’s, the monastery that he had earlier founded and was now bishop over, gained a metropolitan status that it still holds today. Despite being a tiny settlement, St David’s is a city.

Dewi ruled his monks with a kindly authority, insisting they pull the plough by themselves and spare the animals. Dewi was a vegetarian and, during his time in retreat, lived on leeks. This is one reason the leek is the symbol of Wales. Another more prosaic reason (mentioned by Shakespeare in Henry V) is that they identified the Welsh soldiers in battle. That bright idea is also attributed to Dewi.

Dewi owned nothing and if any of his monks referred to an object as theirs or his, they were chastised. Dewi lived a very simple life. Despite this, he is reputed to have travelled widely, founding other churches and monasteries. He even rededicated Glastonbury Abbey. But his role founding churches in Brittany (and many places there are still named for him) is probably apocryphal.

Dewi died at his cathedral on Tuesday 1st March, which could have fallen on 569 or 601 AD, apparently being a very old man of over 100 years-old. His remains were reverently buried in a shrine in the cathedral, befitting his status and immediately becoming a place of pilgrimage. Unfortunately, the place was ransacked in the 10th or 11th century by Viking invaders, who plundered the site and murdered two Welsh bishops along with it. They wrecked the shrine but not the remains of Dewi. In 1275 a new shrine was constructed (the remains of which can still be seen) and it was here that Edward I, not a very popular king in Wales, came to pray in 1284. During the Reformation, the shrine was stripped of treasure and the remains of Dewi confiscated. However in 1996 bones were found in St. Dewi’s Cathedral which, it is claimed, could be those of Dewi himself.

Unlike many other saints of Wales, Pope Callixtus II in 1120 officially canonised Dewi as a saint. It was a little after this that he became the patron saint of his nation, which he remains to this day.

Much of what we know about Dewi comes from the writings of Rhygyfarch in the late 11th century, supposedly based on archives from the monastery. However Rhygyfarch was extremely political. His main aim was to gain independence for the Welsh Church, which had rejected the Roman rite and remained Celtic until the 8th century. Old wounds went deep and it is interesting that the Church in Wales is now independent of English Anglicanism and is a far gentler and more inclusive church, just as Dewi and his forbears would have known it. Even Rowan Williams, our very own former Archbishop of Canterbury, thought nothing of initiating as a Druid whilst in post.

Through his life and, perhaps more importantly, after his death, Dewi unwittingly became a champion of Welsh identity. There is even saying about St Dewi that harks back to the medieval myth that he was a nephew of King Arthur, the once and future king. It is written in the 10th century Armes Prydein Fawr, that one day ‘A lluman glân Dewi a ddyrchafant”, in translation, “and they will raise the pure banner of Dewi” and defeat the English once and for all. We can still but hope.

But the last words should, appropriately, be the last words of Dewi himself. On his deathbed, he uttered his last instructions to those gathered around him: “do the little things, the small things you’ve seen me doing”. As Rowan Williams, the former Archbishop of Canterbury adds: “…it reminds us that the primary things for us are the relationships around us, the need to work at what’s under our hands, what’s within our reach. We can transform our domestic, our family relationships, our national life to some extent, if we do that with focus and concentration in the presence of God.” Amen.


If God Had a Face, What Would it Look Like?

January 23rd, 2015  -  Mike Williams

Way back in 1995, Joan Osborne asked If God had a face, what would it look like? Well, the Christian belief, which is what Joan wrote about, is that God made humans in “his” own image, so “he” is depicted as a man, and usually an old man at that. Fine, but if “he” made humans (i.e. two sexes) in his own image, “he” must have both male and female characteristics. Islam would say that even discussing what God looks like is sacrilegious and portraying his image is blasphemy. That goes for cartoons too. But what if a religion had no choice; it had to represent its Gods (and Goddesses) but, hitherto, had no idea what they looked like?

This happened to the Kushans, a vast empire centred on the Oxus River and absorbing modern-day Afghanistan. It was more than a match for the contemporary empires of Rome, the Han Chinese, and the Persians, but is almost unknown in the West. This may be because fewer sites have been excavated and far less is understood about their culture. In particular, apart from an assumption (born from images of kings making offerings before a fire) that they were Zoroastrian in outlook, very little is known about their Gods and Goddesses. In fact, the scant information we do have about their pantheon comes from their coinage, and that only started around AD 113 to 127, after Wima Kadphises became king. His son, Kanishka I (reigned AD 127 to 151) carried on the tradition, although he changed the language of the coins from Greek to Bactrian, albeit retaining the Greek script.

Like the inscriptions, rather than using images for their deities that arose from Kushan tradition, instead, each portrayal of a God or Goddess drew upon a God of Goddess from another culture, principally Greek (the region had been part of Alexander the Great’s empire), and neighbouring Iranian Zoroastrianism, Indian Hinduism, and Indian Buddhism. Theirs was an eclectic mix.

Take Oesho (who appears to be the chief deity for the Kushans). Here he is on a coin issued by Wima Kadphises.


The God has flames emanating from the top of his head and is leaning against a bull. If you saw this image alone, you might think it was Shiva and that’s exactly where the inspiration for this coin appears to originate. Albeit, recent opinion also associates Oesho with the Zoroastrain God Vāyu-Vāta.

Pharro (the God of good fortune) also has Zoroastrian elements in his design as, like Oesho, he can have flames rising from his shoulders. But his image is based on the Greek God Hermes, since his hat is winged and he wears a nimbate.


Pharro often appears with the Goddess Ardochsho (the Goddess of Abundance), whose name is only known from coins. She takes the image of the Greek Goddess Tyche and, like Tyche, Ardochsho is always depicted carrying a cornucopia.


The Buddha makes it onto many coins, including the less valuable copper coins. Maybe this was a “deity” that spoke to ordinary people. The legend on this coin introduces him as Boddo.


The God Vajrapani was Buddha’s protector and he also finds himself on Kushan coins, except he is portrayed as the Classical Greek God Hercules, complete with lion skin and club.


The God Mithro is based on the Roman/Iranian deity Mithras, and his image on Kushan coins includes a sun disc.


Two copper coins bear a ‘Ganesa’ legend, presumably relating to Ganesh, the Hindu elephant-headed God, but on these coins there is an image of an archer holding a full-length bow with string inwards and an arrow. This is typically a depiction of Rudra, the Rigvedic deity, who often conflates into Shiva, as he is thought he does on these coins. But, to the Kushan’s he is Ganese/Ganesh.

All in all, over 30 different Gods and Goddesses appear on Kushan coins, all with characteristics taken from other pantheons. The Kushan dieties may have had their own stories, customs, and traditions, but when it came to giving them a face, the Kushans looked elsewhere.

In time, only two divinities appear on the coins: Ardoxsho (the Goddess of Abundance) and Oesho (the chief God). But they are still represented as the Greek Goddess Tyche, and the Hindu God Shiva, albeit with a little of the Zoroastrain God Vāyu-Vāta.

So, to answer Joan Osborne’s question. If God had a face, he’d most probably look like the neighbour’s God. And that can’t be a bad thing.

For those who now have the bug for Kushan coins (and who, seriously, can resist), there is a book to be shortly published: Kushan, Kushano-Sasanian and Kidarite Coins: A Catalogue of Coins from the American Numismatic Society by David Jongeward and Joe Cribb. It will apparently focus as much on the pantheon of Kushan deities as it will on their coins. Definitely not to be missed!

The Yule Goat: A Pagan Presence in Modern Scandinavia

December 1st, 2014  -  Mike Williams

Yule Goat

In the town of Gävle in Sweden, residents mark the first day of advent by building a huge straw goat. It fills the main square and, if it doesn’t get burnt down beforehand (which extra straw is kept to hand to rectify), it lasts until Yule (trying to burn it down has almost become a tradition in itself).

The Gävle Goat is a new celebration that was only started in 1996, but actually follows a very old custom thought to originate in pre-Christian northern Europe: the Yule Goat.

It is thought that the celebration of the goat is connected to worship of the Norse god Thor (one of the most popular Gods in the northern pantheon) who rode the sky in a chariot drawn by two goats, Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. Perhaps the burning of the straw goat mimics the sacrifice of real goats once offered to Thor.

As in many countries, the last sheaf of grain bundled in the harvest was credited with magical properties as containing the spirit of the harvest. Whereas in other places it might be woven into a corn dolly, in Scandinavia it is saved for the Yule celebrations, and, in particular, for the making of the Straw Goat. So the offering to Thor also contains elements of harvest and, presumably, entreaties for more of the same in the following year.

Of course, Christianity recast the goat as a devil and it is interesting that there are 11th century references to a man dressed as Saint Nicolas leading the devil, demonstrating his mastery over evil sources. The devil, in this case, was a man dressed as a straw goat.

The custom of wassailing is sometimes called “going Yule goat” in Scandinavia and it does seem that from the 17th century, young men in costumes would walk between houses singing songs, enacting plays, and performing pranks. The group would always include an individual dressed as a straw goat. As with horse characters elsewhere (such as at Padstow and in south Wales), the goat was rowdy, rude, and somewhat threatening.

During the 19th century the Yule goat’s role changed and he became the giver of Christmas gifts, with one of the men in the family dressing up as the Yule goat to deliver them. Possibly this was due to a confusion between the Saint Nicholas figure and the devil (straw goat) from medieval times.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Jultomte, or Father Christmas/Santa Claus took over the role of present giver – as he did in many other parts of the world – although, in Finland, he is still referred to as the Yule goat. As Ulla kindly adds below, the Finnish word, “joulupukki”, is a combination of words “joulu” (Yule) and “pukki” (goat).

The straw/Yule goat was never truly forgotten and it is brilliant that towns like Gävle are bringing him back. I just hope he survives until his date with destiny at the midwinter solstice.

Happy Advent everyone and let’s all go a little “Yule goat” today!


Patron Saint of England: George the Christian or Edmund the “Pagan”?

November 20th, 2014  -  Mike Williams

St Edmund Martyr

St George of dragon slaying fame is the patron saint of Georgia (the country which is not named after him but it sure could be1), Portugal, Malta (although there are others there as well) and, of course, our neighbours, England. But St George was not born in (or even visited) these countries (albeit there are some legendary accounts of him visiting Glastonbury but there are about Jesus too!). George was born in Lydda, which was part of Roman Palestine, and was a soldier in the Roman army until he was tortured and executed by a surprisingly reluctant Diocletian for not making sacrifice to the Roman Gods.

Theories abound as to why he was adopted in England (with the truth probably being he was a bit exotic, had no connections with England – and so could be universally followed – and his Feast Day survived the Reformation intact, unlike a lot of saints). Maybe this occurred as a result of him being adopted as the patron saint of soldiers after he was said to have appeared to the Crusader army at the Battle of Antioch in 1098. Or maybe it didn’t. But King Edward III adopted St George as patron of his newly formed Order of the Garter in 1348 before extending that designation to his entire kingdom.

In doing so, Edward usurped the existing Patron Saint of England – that’s right; there was another – whose Feast Day is today, November 20th. He is St Edmund, as English as a bulldog, who sacrificed himself for the good of his people in 869 AD. In next-to-no-time, no less a figure than King Alfred the Great elevated Edmund to saint and also patron of England. Within 20 years, he was the number one martyred saint in the country. Until St George muscled him aside that is (and not forgetting St Thomas, of course. He of brain-scooped-up-by-sword-fame).

The life story of St Edmund has come down to us with a Christian gloss. Little is known of his early life (although myths abound) but he was probably King of East Anglia in 869 AD, when the Great Heathen Army (full of Danes and would-be Vikings) fell on the kingdom in an orgy of traditional rape and pillage. The army was led by Ivar Ragnarsson or Ivar the Boneless, who was a Viking leader and berserker. According to legend, he was the son of the powerful Ragnar Lodbrok (who will be immediately recognisable by fans – like me – of the Vikings series). Anyway, old Ivar may have been boneless but he was no pushover and his army routinely defeated that of Edmund. The Viking issued terms for surrender (as was usual, even if it seems extremely civilised) with a proviso that St Edmund renounce his Christianity (or was this later gloss?). Edmund felt unable to do this, or, more importantly, agree to the surrender terms at all, saying to his bishop he would “rather die for my country”. Ivar obliged. He tied Edmund to a tree, scourged him (sound familiar), then shot him with arrows and javelins until they resembled “the bristles of a hedgehog” (described by an eyewitness), and then, finally, in that over-the-top Viking way we all love, had him beheaded. Job done. Martyred for his faith, 29 years-old, glamorous, royal, and, through dying valiantly, saving his people from an oppressive surrender treaty. No wonder Alfred dusted off the hagiography almost immediately. Edmund’s example was just what was needed to give other rulers a bit of backbone.

But, despite the Christian gloss, things from now on turned decidedly Pagan. Edmund’s bristled body was recovered quickly, but his severed head had been kicked into a nearby forest and was lost. When his followers went looking for the head, they were led to its location by the sounds of a howling grey wolf crying, in Latin no less, “Hic Hic!”, “Over Here!”. Clever wolf.

The wolf (later a giant wolf) seemed to stand guard over the head but allowed Edmund’s followers to retrieve it. As they did so, a spring gushed from the ground at the point at which it lay. When the followers later stuck the head back on the body, the two miraculously joined, so that the king was whole again for burial at, the appropriately named, Bury St Edmunds (I think the name came later). Very soon, a cult grew around Edmund’s shrine. One manifestation of this is that a woman hoping to conceive would take a pampered white bull to the shrine, garland it with flowers, kiss Edmund’s tomb, then whisper to the dead king her desire to conceive. The tradition survived into Tudor times and if Queen Mary has got herself a bull, there’s no telling what might have happened to English history.

Fertility seems to run through Edmund’s story. The King giving up his life for the land, a spring appearing beneath his slain head, and the posthumous joining of head and body, all suggest a sacrificial king who knew the role he had to play. He told his bishop it was “never my way to flee”. The cult of the severed head is well attested from Celtic times as is its potency as a relic. King Edmund had stepped into a world of myth, from Bran the Blessed of Celtic myth to King Arthur of medieval tales. He even had his own animal spirit protector and, unlike St George, Edmund did not try to slay the wolf.

Whether Edmund was Christian (possible at this date) or whether he was Pagan (as were many of his more rustic supporters) is immaterial. He was probably swayed a little by both faiths, just as King Rædwald of Sutton Hoo (died around 624 AD) was “half-believing” and had separate altars to worship both the Christian God and the Pagan Gods. Smart man. So the myths that grew up around Edmund served both causes, he was a Christian martyr but he also fulfilled the role of sacrificed king in Pagan mythology.

Should he ever have been usurped by St George, the dragon killing upstart who suffered no less at the hands of Diocletian, but had no physical, moral, or circumstantial link with England? What do you think? I know where my vote would go, but I’m Welsh so it wouldn’t count.

There is a new book by Mark Taylor called Edmund: The Untold Story of the Martyr-King and his Kingdom which covers similar ground in much greater detail.

1 The name Georgia (Sakartvelo in Georgian) is an anglicisation of Gurj, derived from the Persian word for the frightening and heroic people in that territory.